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Dezember in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern und am 1. Januar im Raum Berlin-Brandenburg abgeschaltet. Namhafte DTRadiomoderatorinnen — so auch Marusha — wechselten u.
Aufgrund der hohen Besucherzahl der ersten Veranstaltung wurde am April erneut eine Mayday gefeiert, diesmal im Eisstadion in Köln. Die Mayday fand dennoch weiterhin statt — von bis zweimal pro Jahr, einmal am April und noch einmal zwischen Ende November und Mitte Dezember.
Ab gab man die Winter-Mayday auf, für die man jedes Jahr nach einer neuen Halle hatte suchen müssen, und konzentrierte sich ganz auf die Mai-Mayday in den Westfalenhallen.
September an allen 60 Mayday-Events weltweit teilgenommen hatte, gab im Februar aufgrund unüberbrückbarer Differenzen mit dem Veranstalter i-Motion seinen Ausstieg bekannt.
Für die eigentlich geplante Veranstaltung am November waren nämlich bereits vor Veröffentlichung der Werbung keine Karten mehr erhältlich gewesen.
Daher wurde eine zweite Veranstaltung mit der gleichen Besetzung am Vortag geplant. Seit wird versucht, die Mayday auch in andere Länder zu exportieren.
Weitere Ableger sind in Planung. Des Weiteren wurde dort keine moderne Veranstaltungstechnik eingesetzt, sondern ebenfalls die aus den Anfangsjahren.
Venom, Zeal, Turn, Shogun. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte.
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The houses contained between the fences were razed and the inhabitants relocated, thus establishing what later became known as the death strip.
The death strip was covered with raked sand or gravel, rendering footprints easy to notice, easing the detection of trespassers and also enabling officers to see which guards had neglected their task;  it offered no cover; and, most importantly, it offered clear fields of fire for the Wall guards.
Through the years, the Berlin Wall evolved through four versions: The "fourth-generation Wall", known officially as " Stützwandelement UL Begun in  and completed about ,  it was constructed from 45, separate sections of reinforced concrete, each 3.
The top of the wall was lined with a smooth pipe, intended to make it more difficult to scale. The Wall was reinforced by mesh fencing , signal fencing, anti-vehicle trenches, barbed wire , dogs on long lines, " beds of nails " also known as "Stalin's Carpet" under balconies hanging over the "death strip", over watchtowers ,  and 20 bunkers with hundreds of guards.
This version of the Wall is the one most commonly seen in photographs, and surviving fragments of the Wall in Berlin and elsewhere around the world are generally pieces of the fourth-generation Wall.
The layout came to resemble the inner German border in most technical aspects, except that the Berlin Wall had no landmines nor spring-guns.
As was the case with the inner German border, an unfortified strip of Eastern territory was left outside the wall. Also in contrast with the inner German border, little interest was shown by East German law enforcement in keeping outsiders off the outer strip; sidewalks of West Berlin streets even ran inside it.
Despite the East German government's general policy of benign neglect, vandals were not unknown to have been pursued in the outer strip, and even arrested.
In , defector and political activist Wolfram Hasch and four other defectors were standing inside the outer strip defacing the wall when East German personnel emerged from one of the hidden doors to apprehend them.
All but Hasch escaped back into the western sector. Hasch himself was arrested, dragged through the door into the death strip, and later convicted of illegally crossing the de jure border outside the wall.
Besides the sector-sector boundary within Berlin itself, the Wall also separated West Berlin from the present-day state of Brandenburg.
The following present-day municipalities, listed in counter-clockwise direction, share a border with former West Berlin:. There were nine border crossings between East and West Berlin.
These allowed visits by West Berliners, other West Germans, Western foreigners and Allied personnel into East Berlin, as well as visits by GDR citizens and citizens of other socialist countries into West Berlin, provided that they held the necessary permits.
These crossings were restricted according to which nationality was allowed to use it East Germans, West Germans, West Berliners, other countries.
Several other border crossings existed between West Berlin and surrounding East Germany. After the agreements, new crossings were opened to allow West Berlin waste to be transported into East German dumps, as well as some crossings for access to West Berlin's exclaves see Steinstücken.
Access to West Berlin was also possible by railway four routes and by boat for commercial shipping via canals and rivers.
Three western lines traveled through brief sections of East Berlin territory, passing through eastern stations called Geisterbahnhöfe , or ghost stations without stopping.
West Germans and citizens of other Western countries could generally visit East Germany, often after applying for a visa  at an East German embassy several weeks in advance.
Visas for day trips restricted to East Berlin were issued without previous application in a simplified procedure at the border crossing.
However, East German authorities could refuse entry permits without stating a reason. In the s, visitors from the western part of the city who wanted to visit the eastern part had to exchange at least DM 25 into East German currency at the poor exchange rate of 1: It was forbidden to export East German currency from the East, but money not spent could be left at the border for possible future visits.
Tourists crossing from the west had to also pay for a visa, which cost DM 5; West Berliners did not have to pay this.
West Berliners initially could not visit East Berlin or East Germany at all — all crossing points were closed to them between 26 August and 17 December In , negotiations between East and West resulted in a limited possibility for visits during the Christmas season that year Passierscheinregelung.
Similar, very limited arrangements were made in , and In , with the Four Power Agreement on Berlin , agreements were reached that allowed West Berliners to apply for visas to enter East Berlin and East Germany regularly, comparable to the regulations already in force for West Germans.
However, East German authorities could still refuse entry permits. This regulation remained in force essentially until the fall of the Wall, but over the years several exceptions to these rules were introduced, the most significant being:.
For each of these exceptions, GDR citizens had to apply for individual approval, which was never guaranteed. In addition, even if travel was approved, GDR travellers could exchange only a very small amount of East German Marks into Deutsche Marks DM , thus limiting the financial resources available for them to travel to the West.
Citizens of other East European countries were in general subject to the same prohibition of visiting Western countries as East Germans, though the applicable exception if any varied from country to country.
Allied military personnel and civilian officials of the Allied forces could enter and exit East Berlin without submitting to East German passport controls, purchasing a visa or being required to exchange money.
Likewise, Soviet military patrols could enter and exit West Berlin. This was a requirement of the post-war Four Powers Agreements. A particular area of concern for the Western Allies involved official dealings with East German authorities when crossing the border, since Allied policy did not recognize the authority of the GDR to regulate Allied military traffic to and from West Berlin, as well as the Allied presence within Greater Berlin, including entry into, exit from, and presence within East Berlin.
For this reason, elaborate procedures were established to prevent inadvertent recognition of East German authority when engaged in travel through the GDR and when in East Berlin.
Special rules applied to travel by Western Allied military personnel assigned to the Military Liaison Missions accredited to the commander of Soviet forces in East Germany, located in Potsdam.
As with military personnel, special procedures applied to travel by diplomatic personnel of the Western Allies accredited to their respective embassies in the GDR.
This was intended to prevent inadvertent recognition of East German authority when crossing between East and West Berlin, which could jeopardize the overall Allied position governing the freedom of movement by Allied forces personnel within all Berlin.
Ordinary citizens of the Western Allied powers, not formally affiliated with the Allied forces, were authorized to use all designated transit routes through East Germany to and from West Berlin.
In these instances, such travelers, unlike Allied personnel, had to submit to East German border controls. During the years of the Wall, around 5, people successfully defected to West Berlin.
The number of people who died trying to cross the Wall, or as a result of the Wall's existence, has been disputed.
The most vocal claims by Alexandra Hildebrandt , Director of the Checkpoint Charlie Museum and widow of the Museum's founder, estimated the death toll to be well above GDR officials denied issuing the latter.
In an October order later discovered by researchers, guards were instructed that people attempting to cross the Wall were criminals and needed to be shot: Early successful escapes involved people jumping the initial barbed wire or leaping out of apartment windows along the line, but these ended as the Wall was fortified.
East German authorities no longer permitted apartments near the Wall to be occupied, and any building near the Wall had its windows boarded and later bricked up.
He attempted to swim across the Spree to West Berlin on 24 August , the same day that East German police had received shoot-to-kill orders to prevent anyone from escaping.
Engels stole a Soviet armored personnel carrier from a base where he was deployed and drove it right into the Wall. He was fired at and seriously wounded by border guards.
But a West German policeman intervened, firing his weapon at the East German border guards. The policeman removed Engels from the vehicle, which had become entangled in the barbed wire.
East Germans successfully defected by a variety of methods: When a metal beam was placed at checkpoints to prevent this kind of defection, up to four people two in the front seats and possibly two in the boot drove under the bar in a sports car that had been modified to allow the roof and windscreen to come away when it made contact with the beam.
They lay flat and kept driving forward. The East Germans then built zig-zagging roads at checkpoints. The sewer system predated the Wall, and some people escaped through the sewers,  in a number of cases with assistance from the Unternehmen Reisebüro.
If an escapee was wounded in a crossing attempt and lay on the death strip, no matter how close they were to the Western wall, Westerners could not intervene for fear of triggering engaging fire from the 'Grepos', the East Berlin border guards.
The guards often let fugitives bleed to death in the middle of this ground, as in the most notorious failed attempt, that of Peter Fechter aged He was shot and bled to death, in full view of the Western media, on 17 August Fechter's death created negative publicity worldwide that led the leaders of East Berlin to place more restrictions on shooting in public places, and provide medical care for possible "would-be escapers".
The Wall gave rise to a widespread sense of desperation and oppression in East Berlin, as expressed in the private thoughts of one resident, who confided to her diary "Our lives have lost their spirit…we can do nothing to stop them.
On 6 June , David Bowie , who earlier for several years lived and recorded in West Berlin, played a concert close to the Wall. This was attended by thousands of Eastern concertgoers across the Wall,  followed by violent rioting in East Berlin.
According to Tobias Ruther, these protests in East Berlin were the first in the sequence of riots that led to those of November You are now among Heroes.
Thank you for helping to bring down the wall. On 19 July , 16 months before the Wall came down, Bruce Springsteen and the E-Street Band, played Rocking the Wall, a live concert in East Berlin, which was attended by , in person and broadcast delayed on television.
Springsteen spoke to the crowd in German, saying: I've come to play rock 'n' roll for you in the hope that one day all the barriers will be torn down".
They hoped that by letting Springsteen in, they could improve their sentiment among East Germans. However, this strategy of "one step backwards, two steps forwards" backfired and the concert only made East Germans hungrier for more of the freedoms that Springsteen epitomized.
Kennedy and Ronald Reagan delivered their famous speeches from the safety of West Berlin, Springsteen's speaking out against the Wall in the middle of East Berlin added to the euphoria.
On 31 December , American TV actor and pop music singer David Hasselhoff was the headlining performer for the Freedom Tour Live concert, which was attended by over , people on both sides of the Wall.
The live concert footage was directed by music video director Thomas Mignone and aired on broadcast television station Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen ZDF throughout Europe.
During shooting film crew personnel pulled people up from both sides to stand and celebrate on top of the wall. Hasselhoff sang his number one hit song "Looking For Freedom" on a platform at the end of a twenty-meter steel crane that swung above and over the Wall adjacent to the Brandenburg Gate.
On 26 June , 22 months after the erection of the Berlin Wall, U. Kennedy visited West Berlin. Speaking from a platform erected on the steps of Rathaus Schöneberg for an audience of , he declared in his Ich bin ein Berliner speech the support of the United States for West Germany and the people of West Berlin in particular:.
Two thousand years ago, the proudest boast was civis romanus sum ["I am a Roman citizen"]. Today, in the world of freedom, the proudest boast is "Ich bin ein Berliner!
All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin, and therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words "Ich bin ein Berliner! The message was aimed as much at the Soviets as it was at Berliners and was a clear statement of U.
The speech is considered one of Kennedy's best, both a notable moment of the Cold War and a high point of the New Frontier. It was a great morale boost for West Berliners, who lived in an exclave deep inside East Germany and feared a possible East German occupation.
In a speech at the Brandenburg Gate commemorating the th anniversary of Berlin  on 12 June , U. We welcome change and openness; for we believe that freedom and security go together, that the advance of human liberty can only strengthen the cause of world peace.
There is one sign the Soviets can make that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of freedom and peace. General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization , come here to this gate.
Gorbachev, open this gate. Gorbachev, tear down this Wall! In June the Hungarian government began dismantling the electrified fence along its border with Austria with Western TV crews present , and then, in September, more than 13, East German tourists escaped through Hungary to Austria.
The Hungarians prevented many more East Germans from crossing the border and returned them to Budapest. The East German government responded by disallowing any further travel to Hungary, but allowed those already there to return to East Germany.
This time, however, the East German authorities allowed people to leave, provided that they did so by train through East Germany.
This was followed by mass demonstrations within East Germany itself. Protest demonstrations spread throughout East Germany in September Initially, protesters were mostly people wanting to leave to the West, chanting "Wir wollen raus!
Then protestors began to chant "Wir bleiben hier! This was the start of what East Germans generally call the " Peaceful Revolution " of late The movement neared its height on 4 November, when half a million people gathered to demand political change, at the Alexanderplatz demonstration , East Berlin's large public square and transportation hub.
Honecker had predicted in January of that year that the Wall would stand for 50 or more years  [ dead link ] if the conditions that had caused its construction did not change.
The wave of refugees leaving East Germany for the West kept increasing. This was tolerated by the new Krenz government, because of long-standing agreements with the communist Czechoslovak government, allowing free travel across their common border.
However this movement of people grew so large it caused difficulties for both countries. To ease the difficulties, the politburo led by Krenz decided on 9 November to allow refugees to exit directly through crossing points between East Germany and West Germany, including between East and West Berlin.
Later the same day, the ministerial administration modified the proposal to include private, round-trip, travel. The new regulations were to take effect the next day.
Günter Schabowski , the party boss in East Berlin and the spokesman for the SED Politburo, had the task of announcing the new regulations.
However, he had not been involved in the discussions about the new regulations and had not been fully updated. These regulations had only been completed a few hours earlier and were to take effect the following day, so as to allow time to inform the border guards.
But this starting time delay was not communicated to Schabowski. At the end of the press conference, Schabowski read out loud the note he had been given.
After a few seconds' hesitation, Schabowski assumed it would be the same day based on the wording of the note and replied, "As far as I know, it takes effect immediately, without delay".
Excerpts from Schabowski's press conference were the lead story on West Germany's two main news programs that night—at 7: As ARD and ZDF had broadcast to nearly all of East Germany since the late s and had become accepted by the East German authorities, the news was broadcast there as well simultaneously.
The GDR has announced that, starting immediately, its borders are open to everyone. The gates in the Wall stand open wide.
After hearing the broadcast, East Germans began gathering at the Wall, at the six checkpoints between East and West Berlin, demanding that border guards immediately open the gates.
At first, they were ordered to find the "more aggressive" people gathered at the gates and stamp their passports with a special stamp that barred them from returning to East Germany—in effect, revoking their citizenship.
However, this still left thousands of people demanding to be let through "as Schabowski said we can".
It soon became clear that no one among the East German authorities would take personal responsibility for issuing orders to use lethal force, so the vastly outnumbered soldiers had no way to hold back the huge crowd of East German citizens.
Soon afterward, a crowd of West Berliners jumped on top of the Wall, and were soon joined by East German youngsters.
They danced together to celebrate their new freedom. Walking through Checkpoint Charlie , 10 November At the Brandenburg Gate , 10 November Another border crossing to the south may have been opened earlier.
An account by Heinz Schäfer indicates that he also acted independently and ordered the opening of the gate at Waltersdorf-Rudow a couple of hours earlier.
The fall of the Berlin Wall German: Mauerfall began the evening of 9 November and continued over the following days and weeks, with people nicknamed Mauerspechte wall woodpeckers using various tools to chip off souvenirs, demolishing lengthy parts in the process, and creating several unofficial border crossings.
Crowds gathered on both sides of the historic crossings waiting for hours to cheer the bulldozers that tore down portions of the Wall to reconnect the divided roads.
While the Wall officially remained guarded at a decreasing intensity, new border crossings continued for some time, including the Brandenburg Gate on 22 December Initially the East German military attempted repairing damage done by the "Wall peckers"; gradually these attempts ceased, and guards became more lax, tolerating the increasing demolitions and "unauthorized" border crossing through the holes.
West Germans and West Berliners were allowed visa-free travel starting 23 December. Thus, in the weeks between 9 November and 23 December, East Germans could actually travel more freely than Westerners.
According to estimates by the border troops, a total of around 1. These were equipped with trucks, 65 cranes, 55 excavators and 13 bulldozers. Virtually every road that was severed by the Berlin Wall, every road that once linked from West Berlin to East Berlin, was reconstructed and reopened by 1 August What remained were six sections that were to be preserved as a memorial.
Painted wall segments with artistically valuable motifs were put up for auction in in Berlin and Monte Carlo. On 1 July, the day East Germany adopted the West German currency, all de jure border controls ceased, although the inter-German border had become meaningless for some time before that.
The fall of the Wall marked the first critical step towards German reunification , which formally concluded a mere days later on 3 October with the dissolution of East Germany and the official reunification of the German state along the democratic lines of the West German Basic Law.
An East German guard talks to a Westerner through a broken seam in the wall in late November A crane removes a section of the Wall near Brandenburg Gate on 21 December There are seven ultra groups in Bremen: Bundesliga    .
German Under 19 championship. Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Companies that Werder Bremen currently has sponsorship deals with include: Werder Bremen's reserve team currently plays in the Regionalliga-Nord after relegation from 3.
Liga after finishing 18th in the —18 season. It plays its home matches at Weserstadion Platz 11 , adjacent to the first team's ground, and it is coached by Sven Hübscher.
The women's team was promoted to the first Bundesliga in — Werder has had 19 managers since the beginning of the Bundesliga era in Otto Rehhagel served the longest term, being in office for fourteen years.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retired numbers in football. SV Werder Bremen women. List of Werder Bremen managers. SV Werder Bremen in Europe.
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